Karnataka is one of the four southern states of India. Before 1973, the state was known as Mysore state,
as it was formed out of the former Kingdom of Mysore in 1950, and enlarged in 1956 to include the Kannada-speaking regions
of neighboring states. Karnataka's capital Bangalore is the only city in the state with a population of more than 1 million.
Other major cities include Mysore, Mangalore, Hubli-Dharwad, Bellary and Belgaum. Kannada is the official language of Karnataka
About Kannada language
Kannada - aptly described as 'sirigannada' (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and
is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people.
The Kannada language has been spoken for about 2500 years
and third oldest language of India, with the Kannada writing system being in use for about the last 1900 years. In Kannada
one can "WRITE WHAT YOU SPEAK, YOU CAN READ WHAT YOU WRITE". The initial development of the Kannada language is similar to
that of other Dravidian languages, notably Tamil and Telugu. During later centuries, Kannada, along with Telugu, has been
highly influenced by Sanskrit vocabulary and literary styles.
Kannada is a highly inflected language with three genders (masculine, feminine, neutral or common) and two numbers
(singular, plural). It is inflected for gender, number and tense, among other things.
There is also a sharp distinction between the spoken
and written forms of the language. Spoken Kannada tends to vary from region to region. The written form is more or less constant
throughout Karnataka, however. The ethnologue identifies about 20 dialects of Kannada. Notable of them are Kodava (spoken
in Coorg district), Kunda (spoken exclusively in Kundapura), Havyaka (spoken mainly by Havyaka Brahmanas of Dakshina Kannada,
Uttara Kannada, Shimoga, Sagara, and Udupi districts), Are Bhashe (spoken mainly in Sullia region of Dakshina Kannada), Soliga
Kannada, Badaga Kannada, Gulbarga Kannada, Hubli Kannada, etc.
About History of Kannada Bhaashe
Kannada is a south Indian language spoken in Karnataka state of India. Kannada is originated from the
Dravidian Language. Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam are the other South Indian Languages originated from Dravidian Language. Kannada
and Telugu have almost the same script. Malayalam and Tamil have resemblance. As time passes by Kannada as a language has
undergone modifications since BCs. It can be classified into four types :-
1) Purva Halegannada (from the beginning till
2) Halegannada (from 10th Century to 12th Century)
3) Nadugannada (from 12th Century to 15th Century)
Hosagannada (from 15th Century)
About Kannada Script
The Kannada script is used write the Kannada language. Kannada script is derived from the Old Kannda script and is closely
related to the Telugu script.
Kannada script is the visual form of Kannada
language. Kannada Script is of Syllabic Alphabetic belongs to Brahmi lipi Family of Ashoka period. It underwent modifications
periodically in the reign of Sathavahanas, Kadambas, Gangas, Rastrakutas, and Hoysalas. Even before seventh-Century, the Telugu-Kannada
script was used in the inscriptions of the Kadambas of Banavasi and the early Chalukya of Badami in the west. From the middle
of the seventh century the archaic variety of the Telugu-Kannada script developed a middle variety. The modern Kannada and
Telugu scripts emerged in the thirteenth Century. Kannada script is also used to write Tulu, Konkani and Kodava languages.
Kannada is also sometimes known as Kanarese or Canarese.
Kannada script is the visual form of Kannada
language. It originated from southern Bramhi lipi of Ashoka period. It underwent modifications periodically in the reign of
Sathavahanas, Kadambas, Gangas, Rastrakutas, and Hoysalas. Even before seventh-Century, the Telugu-Kannada script was used
in the inscriptions of the Kadambas of Banavasi and the early Chalukya of Badami in the west. From the middle of the seventh
century the archaic variety of the Telugu-Kannada script developed a middle variety. The modern Kannada and Telugu scripts
emerged in the thirteenth Century. Kannada script is also used to write Tulu, Konkani and Kodava languages.
Kannada along with other Indian language
scripts shares a large number of structural features. The writing system of Kannada script encompasses the principles governing
the phonetics (The branch of acoustics concerned with speech processes including its production and perception and acoustic
analysis) and a syllabic writing systems, and phonemic writing systems (alphabets). The effective unit of writing
Kannada is the orthographic syllable consisting of a consonant and vowel core and optionally, one or more preceding consonants.
The orthographic syllable need not correspond exactly with a phonological syllable, especially when a consonant cluster is
involved, but the writing system is built on phonological principles and tends to correspond quite closely to pronunciation.
The orthographic (A method of representing the sounds of a language by written or printed symbols) syllable is built
up of alphabetic pieces, the actual letters of Kannada script. These consist of distinct character types: Consonant letters,
independent vowels and the corresponding dependent vowel signs. In a text sequence, these characters are stored in logical
phonetic order. For more information please visit http;//brahmi.sourceforge.net
Unique things about Kannada
Kannada has a few firsts. The first encyclopedia was written in Kannada. This was later translated to Sanskrit under
About kannada saahithya
The Kannada language belongs to the Dravidian family
of languages and is the second oldest language currently spoken in India . Kannada literature is also the third oldest literary
tradition in India, next to those of Sanskrit literature (and its various dialects such as Prakrit) and Tamil literature.
example of Kannada writing can be found in the Halmidi inscription, dated c. 450 CE. The famous Badami inscriptions from the
7th century provide more examples of early Kannada writing. However, the first available book in Kannada is the Kavirajamarga,
written in the 9th century by Amoghavarsha Nrpatunga. The book is a treatise of sorts on Kannada poetry, Kannada language
and Kannada speaking people in general. Based on the references that the book makes to earlier Kannada works, historians estimate
that literature in Kannada must have begun a couple of centuries before, in the 6th-7th centuries CE. However, none of these
earlier works have been found.
The history of Kannada literature is usually studied under three phases
1) Hale Kannada (Old Kannada)
2) Nadu Kannada (Middle Kannada)
3) Adhunika Kannada (Modern Kannada)
Old Kannada (haLegannaDa)
Old Kannada phase marks the period from the 10th century to approximately the 12th century. This period consists mainly of
Jain religious literature. The most famous poet from this period is Pampa (902-975 CE), one of the most famous writers in
the Kannada language. His Vikramarjuna Vijaya (also called pampa bharatha)is hailed as a classic even to this day. With this
and his other important work Adipurana he set a trend of poetic excellence for the Kannada poets of the future. The former
work is an adaptation of the celebrated Mahabharata, and is the first such adaptation in Kannada. Noted for the strong human
bent and the dignified style in his writing, Pampa has been one of the most influential writers in Kannada. He is identified
as the adi kavi. (First poet)
Middle Kannada period gave birth to several genres in Kannada literature, with new forms of composition coming into use, including
Ragale (a form of blank verse) and meters like Sangatya and Desi. The works of this period are based on Jain, Hindu and secular
Kannada had poetry similar
to haiku in the 12th century! This form of poetry, called vachanas, were three liners which were pithy comments on that period's
social, religious and economic conditions. More importantly, they hold a mirror to the seed of a social revolution, which
caused a radical re-examination of the ideas of caste, creed and religion. One of the important ideas coming out of this revolution
was the view that Work is worship and a path to spirituality.
Some of the important writers of Vachana literature include
Basaveshvara (1131-1167 CE), Allama Prabhu and Akka Mahadevi, the first woman-writer in Kannada.
Vyasa has been the most famous and most influential Kannada writer of all time. His lifetime work, the Karnata Bharata KathaManjari,
is a sublime adaptation of the first ten Parvas (chapters) of the Mahabharata. A devotee of Krishna, Kumara Vyasa ends his
epic with the passing of Krishna in the tenth chapter of the Mahabharata. The work is easily the most celebrated in Kannada
literature. Its fame arises out of the fact that it has appealed to people of all strata of education and intellect right
up to the present day. The work is entirely composed in the Bhamini Shatpadi meter, a form of six lined stanza. The range
of human emotions that Kumara Vyasa explores and the versatility of his vocabulary are extensive. The work is particularly
known for its use of sophisticated metaphors, earning Kumara Vyasa the title Rupaka Samrajya Chakravarti (Emperor of the Land
Bhakti literature is the
literature composed by the Dasas or saints, around 15th century, singing the glory of God through poems. These poems called
Padas were usually of 10 to 20 lines. They expressed the desire of the Bhakta or devotee to be one with God. This form of
poetry was highly amenable to musical composition and exposition. This music evolved into the highly sophisticated and codified
Carnatic music. The Haridasas spread the message of peace, love and bhakti in their Dasa Sahitya, which are also popularly
known as Devaranamas. Important writers of the Bhakti genre are Purandara Dasa (1494-1564) and Kanaka Dasa.
Navodaya literally means
a new birth. This indeed was the reincarnation of Kannada literature in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, after a period
of dormancy in the face of British occupation of India. This period saw greats like Srikanthaiah, Kuvempu, Bendre, Shivaram
Karanth, Betgeri Krishnasharma. This genre was highly influenced by Romantic English Poetry and Greek theater. It was Srikanthaiah
who started this movement of sorts with his translation of a few critically acclaimed English poems of the Romantic period.
Many educated Kannadigas, especially those who were in the teaching profession, realised that they needed to express themselves
in their mother tongue and started writing in Kannada.
Kuvempu is a case in point who was convinced by his professor (of
British origin) that he should write in his mother tongue. Kuvempu went on to become a Rashtrakavi (national poet). His love
of nature, realisation of the greatness of man's spirit and the vision to see the blend of nature and God made him more than
Kannada's Wordsworth. His most famous work is the Sri Ramayana Darshanam, based on the Hindu epic Ramayana.
To be Proud: The fact that holds testament to the greatness of Kannada literature
is that it has won seven Jnanapith awards, the highest for any Indian language. As of August 2004, a total
of 46 Kannada writers have received the Indian Sahitya Akademi award. For more info. please visit http;//www.kamat.com
Bangalore is believed to have been founded in 1537
by Kempe Gowda (1510 - 1570). During the time of the Puranas, this region was known as "Kalyanapuri" or "Kalyananagara", the
"City Auspicious". The Mauryan Emperor, Chandragupta Maurya, renounced his throne to become a Jain Monk at Shravanabelagola,
a Jain piligrimage center, southwest of Bangalore.
Bengaluru was first mentioned in records from the
Ganga era as a small hamlet, the location of which coincides with modern Halebengaluru near Kodigehalli (not far from Hebbal).
It is said that when Kempe Gowda built his new capital town in about 1537, he called it Bengaluru as his mother and wife belonged
to the hamlet of Halé Bengaluru (Old Bangalore) .
Another version suggests that the name Bangalore derives
from Benda kalu, which means Boiled beans. It is said that a humble old lady served a 10th century ruler, King Veeraballa
of Vijayanagara who lost his way in the forest. He liked the food so much he named the place Benda Kaluru, meaning "the city
of boiled beans", to commemorate his experience. After the arrival of the British, the city was given the anglicized name
Some of the commonly used phrases
Hello - > Namaskaara
How much? -> Eshtu
English -> Aangla
Please -> Dayavittu
Where are you going -> Yelli ge hogtha
How are you -> Hege idderaa
I am fine -> Nannu channage iddenee
you -> Dhanyavaada
Sorry -> Kshamisi
That one -> Adu
Yes -> Houdu
No -> Illa
I don't understand
-> Nanage Arthavaagalilla
Where's the bathroom? -> Shoucha Gruha ellide ? OR Bacchalu mane ellide ?
Do you speak
English? -> Tamage Aangla Bhaashe Tilidideyo ?
Welcome to Karnataka! -> Karnatakakke suswaagatha!